HORSE TERMINOLOGY - EQUINE DESCRIPTIONS

 

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- A -

Albino: contrary to popular beliefe, albinos DO indeed exist. They are born pure white with very light blue or uncolored eyes. The blue is a tint from the blood. Albinos are quite rare, but are found in all types of mammals, including humans, and eyes only appear red in rodents and related animals, such as rabbits and beavers. Albinos are the only true white horses.

Appaloosa: an american breed charactorized by having one or more appaloosa charactoristics, such as spots on the coat, mottling, strpied hooves, eye whites, etc. Also any type of horse with these charactoristics of any breed as a color.

Arabian: a unique horse of arabic breeding with an unusually arched nack, short back, arched tail, dished face, and fewer bones than that of any other horse breed.

Arena: where a horse is worked. It is much like a paddock only quite a bit larger and instead of turining the horses loose, this is where riders practice their equitation.


- B -

Bay: a horse of chestnut coat with black points. Horses of this color may be split into catagories: blood bay, golden bay, dun (if applies), etc.

Black: a color of horse, the darkest a horse can get. A horse may have black points (mane, tail, and legs) or be a black roan or a piebald pinto, as well as a solid black. Black horses are very rare, and have NO brown shadings on the body whatsoever. Usually, horses classified as blacks are actually dark bay.

Buckskin: a palomino-colored horse (tan or gold) with black points.


- C -

Canter: a three-beat gair of the horse where legs on opposite sides and leading strike the ground at the same time. Faster than the trot and slower than the gallop.

Chestnut: a horse of any "brown or red" color with the same color or darker mane and tail (but not black). Dark ones are called Liver Chestnuts or Seal chestnuts, while light ones can be Golden Chestnuts, Red Chestnuts, sorrels, and more.

Colt: a young, uncasterated male horse between the ages of birth and 4 years.

Corral: a place to keep large numbers or low numbers of stock, like a big arena outdoors but usually not used for riding in, only holding stock.

Creamello: a very light palomino color.



- D -

Dappled Grey: an early stage of fleabitten, where the body appears grey with white speckles throughout it.

Dun: a horse of any color with charactoristics such as a dorsal stripe, transversal stripe, and striped legs.
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- E -

Equestrian: a horseback rider.

Equine: Any type of equidite; horses, ponies, donkies, mules.

Equitation: how an equestrian performs.

ER: Equine Rescue, usually some sort of organization to help equines, sometimes an individual or doing.


- F -

Feral: These horses are not wild as they did not naturally live in the area that they do now, so are not wild, but are no longer tame, either. This includes such horses as Mustangs and Brumbies.

Fleabitten: A horse is fleabiif his or her coat has roaned out from either a dappled grey, black, chestnut, bay, or blue roan and all that is left is tiny speckles across the fur. The horse will eventually turn completely white. This is an advanced stage of roaning, but is NOT considered roan. Types of fleabitten are fleabitten grey and fleabitten red roan.

Filly: a young female horse who has not yet had a foal between the ages of birth and 4 years.

Foal: a young horse of either sex between the ages of birth and weaning.

Fox trot: where a horse trots with his forelegs and walks with his back, a very smooth gait that is rare in most breeds aside from the Rocky Mountain Pony and the MO Fox Trotter. Also known as a single foot.

Frog: The soft part on the bottom of a horse's foot, similar to the sole of a shoe.

Furlong: 1/8th of a mile. This is used as a distance on a track.


- G -

Gelding: a casterated male horse.

Grey: Almost all white appearing horses are grey. A horse is grey if his or her coat is black. A horse may turn grey from any color. Most "white" horses are actually grey.

Gymkhana: Western gaming, such as barrel racing or pole bending.


- H -

Hinny: A cross between a donkey Jenny and a stallion.

Horse: a stallion, or uncasterated adult male horse over 4 years of age.


- I -

Irons: English sturrups.


- J -

Jack: A male donkey.

Jenny: A female donkey.

Jockey: The rider of a racehorse.

John: A male mule.
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- K -

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- L -

Length: Approx. 8-9 feet, or the length of a stretched out horse at a gallop.


- M -

Mare: an adult female horse over the ages of 4 years or after she has had her first foal.

Medicine Hat: a spot of color on the ears of a pinto horse. This does not extend down the face or neck at all. A horse with a spot of color on an otherwise white head that goes down to the throatlatch but doesn't extend down the face or extend beyond the top of the neck is called a War Bonnet.

Molly: A female mule.

Mule: A cross between a female horse (mare) and a male donkey (jack).

Mustang: any breed of feral American horse. Mustang is often refurred to as a breed.


- N -

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- O -

Overo: a pinto of any color with no white crossing his or her back.


- P -

Pace: a gait found in many horses that don't trot, where legs on the same side of the body move together.

Paddock: a turnout place for horses outside, like a tiny corral but only used for one or twohorses at a time.

Palomino: a horse the color of a "new gold coin" with white points. White legs are not necissary, but usually wanted. Palominos are a color, not a breed. Palominos can only be born by breeding two palominos, and even then, only 1/2 of the foals will turn out palominos. Many breeds do not allow palominos to be registered, such as arabians and thoroughbreds, and are therefore classified as chestnuts.

Perlino: a white-colored horse with cream or palomino shadings.

Piebald: a pinto of grey and white or black and white coloring.

Pintabian: a breed of horse over 99% arabian with tobiano pinto markings.

Pinto: a horse with large splashes of any color and white. Hairs are not combined as with roans, but instead keep seperate with their own colors.

Points: a horse's legs, mane, and tail.


- Q -

Quarter Horse: the world's most popular and versital breed. This breed was originally bred as a range horse, then for running races at short distances, such as a quarter of a mile.

Quarter Pole: the colored pole one quarter of the way from the finish line for a race. This is where Quarter Horses start their races.
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- R -

Race: a compotition for horses, where the winning horse is the fastest for that race and crosses the finish line first.

Race Horse: any type of racing breed, usually thoroughbreds, appaloosas, quarter horses, standardbreds, or arabians.

Rack: The fastest show gait of a five-gaited horse, a high-stepping pace-type motion.

Roan: a horse may be blue roan, black roan, or red roan. A roan usually has darker colored points and face or black points with a mixture of hairs of, for example, red and white (red roan).


- S -

Sabino: a splashy pinto pattern, with a white belly. Sabinos are also overos.

Saddle: a piece of riding equipment put over the horses' back as a type of brace and seat for the rider.

Singlefoot: a fox trot.

Skewbald: a pinto horse of any color but grey and white or black and white.

Sorrel: a horse of a chestnut coat color with a flaxen or white mane and tail. This can be split into catagories, such as copper-sorrel, chocolate sorrel, palomino, etc.

Stall: an indoor box where a horse is kept at times during the day.

Stallion: an uncasterated adult male horse over 4 years of age.

Stud: a stallion used for breeding.

Sturrups: a place to keep your feet when riding for support in the western saddle.

Surcingle: a girth used for race horses that goes all the way over the saddle. May also be used bareback for training or vaulting.


- T -

Thoroughbred: any descendant of three specific arabain stallions of the 1600's. They are usually used for middle-distance races, shorter than indurance but longer than 1/2 of a mile. Also, these horses must trace their parentiage back to at least one of three thoroughbred stallions: Herod, Matchem, or Eclipse.

Tobiano: a pinto of any color with some white crossing its back and a solid colored head (markings are permittable).

Tovero: a pinto of any color with overo-stle markings, and perhaps a bit of white crossing either the loins over the back and/or the lower neck. Otherwise usually a solid color with a white face and markings. Mostly colored.


- U -

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- V -

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- W -

War Bonnet: A horse with a spot of color on an otherwise white head that goes down to the throatlatch but doesn't extend down the face or extend beyond the top of the neck is called a War Bonnet.

Weanling: a young horse of either sex that no longer needs it's mother's milk, and lives on grasses.

Warmblood: almost any sport horse type is a warmblood. A warmblood is a horse used for riding but not racing. A warmblood can also be a European crossbred.

White: an albino horse.


- X -

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- Y -

Yearling: a horse of either sex that is one year old.
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- Z -

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MORE EQUINE DEFINITIONS

Abortion The premature expulsion of the fetus or foal generally attributed to one of three causes:
(1) Improper rations; (2) Injuries; (3) Bacillus abortus.
Aged Horse A horse known to be nine years old or older.
Anemia Condition of the body resulting from a lack of red corpuscles in the blood.
Bad Keeper A horse who does not eat well or does not digest what he does eat.
Bedding Straw, sawdust, wood shavings, sand, peat moss, leaves or sugar cane stalks are considered to be good bedding for horses.
Blemish An abnormality that does not seriously affect the serviceability of a horse.
Body brush A soft brush used to make a horse shine.
Box stall A stall in the shape of a large box (12 x 14 or so)
Breeches Riding pants
Breed Registry A group of breeders banded together for the purposes of recording the lineage of their animals, protecting the purity of the breed, encouraging further improvement of the breed, and promoting the interest of the breed.
"Buy a lot" An expression used in racing circles for falling off.
Castration Removal of the testicles of a male to make him sterile.
Colostrum The milk secreted by the dam for the first few days following birth of a foal.
Colt A young stallion.
Concentrates Feeds that are low in fiber and high in total digestible nutrients. Examples of this class of feeds are the various grains and high grade by products.
Conception The fertilization of the egg and beginning of growth of the embryo inside the mare's body.
Conformation Symmetrical disposition of the parts of a horse
(how the horse is proportionally put together).
Cribbing A vice in which the horse bites or places its upper incisor teeth on some solid object, pulls down, arches his neck, and swallows gulps of air which go into the stomach, not the lungs.
Dam A name for a mare which has a foal.
Dismounting Getting off of a riding horse. This should always be done on the "near" or left side of the horse.
Drag hunt A form of hunting in which an artificial scent is first laid.
Drench A method of giving liquid medicine to a horse by elevating his head and pouring it down his throat from a bottle.
Equitation Art of riding horses gracefully.
Farrier A blacksmith or one who shoes horses.
Feathers Long hair found on a horse such as on the fetlocks.
Feeds Standard feeds for a horse are hay, grass, oats, barley, corn, sweet feed and bran.
Filly Female horse under three years of age.
Firing A method of strengthening tendons by piercing the skin of the foreleg between the knee and pastern with a red hot iron. This is practiced largely with race horses which have broken down in the tendons.
Fixed or bridged reins Reins crossed and rested on top of horse's withers so that the horse pulls against himself.
Foal Colt or filly under one year.
Gaits The ways a horse moves. The three natural gaits (paces) of a horse are walk, trot and canter. Others are foxtrot, gallop, pace, rack, running walk, slow pace, stepping pace and the traverse or sidestep.
Gelding A male horse which has been castrated before he is two years old.
Gestation The act or period of carrying the young during the pregnancy period; 11 to 11 1/2 months or 330 to 340 days for the mare.
Gymkhana An all-games show or event (egg-in-spoon race, musical chairs, etc.) for horses and their riders.
Hand Unit of measuring horse's height (to highest part of the withers):
1 hand = 4 in. = 10 cm. Subdivided into inches.
(For example, 16.2 hands = 16 hands and 2 inches.)
Head-shy Horse is afraid of having the head touched or of quick movements about the head.
Heat period The period in which the mare can be bred. Heat periods usually recur at about 21-day intervals. This interval may be as short as 10 days or long as 37. The duration of the heat period averages 4 to 6 days, but it may range from 1 to 37 days.
Hogging or roaching Clipping the mane close to the neck.
Light horses Animals produced to meet the specific purposes of riding, racing, stock horses, etc.
Mare A female of the horse species.
Measuring The four common measurements of a horse are bone, girth, height, and weight.
Mounting Getting onto a horse properly. Always mount from the "near" or left side.
Near-side The left side of a horse.
Off or far side The right side of a horse.
Pace see Gait (above).
Parasite An organism living on or in the horse such as lice (external) and worms (internal).
Parturition Act of giving birth.
Pedigree A form showing the line of ancestors and their performance for an individual horse.
Poling or rapping A cruel practice of striking the underpart of a horse as he goes over a jump with any number of devices from a bamboo pole to a heavy bar wrapped with barbed wire, or with an electrified wire. It is a short cut taken by inefficient trainers to make a horse jump higher than the object over which he is being schooled, mainly to prevent ticks or knocking off of the bar.
Pony A horse of a small breed, 14.2 hands and under.
Puberty The state of being capable of begetting or bearing offspring (point of sexual maturity). Mares generally reach the age of puberty when 15 to 24 months of age.
"Pulling leather" Hanging onto the saddle to keep your balance.
Purebred An animal whose blood lines are pure.
Red ribbon on tail A sign that a horse kicks.
Registration Entering horse into the registry of the breed association if he meets qualifications laid down by the organization.
Roughage Feeds that are high in fiber and therefore low in digestible nutrients. Such feeds as hay, corn fodder, and straw belong to this class.
Saddle A leather covered seat for the rider on horseback. The English saddle and the Western saddle are the common types.
Shank A long strap or rape used for leading the horse.
Sire The male parent of a horse.
Stallion A male horse of breeding age.
Stallion foal A male foal (colt).
Sterility or barrenness Not fertile - horses that are incapable of producing young are sterile.
Stock A hunting necktie which can be used as a bandage for horse or rider should an emergency arise.
Straight or tie stall An area between two partitions in which the horse is generally tied to his manger. tie stall:(5 or 6 ft. x 9 ft.)
Tack The saddle, bridle, girth, martingale, etc.
Types of horses A classification of the different kinds of horses. One type is the light horse which is sub-divided into driving horses, racing horses, and riding horses. Under driving horses we find fine harness, heavy harness, ponies, and roadsters; under racing horses are harness-race, quarter-race, and running-race; and under riding horses are five-gaiter, hunters, jumpers, plantation walking horses, polo mounts, ponies, stock horses, and three gaited horses. The second type is work horses which is sub-divided into draft horses, farm chunks, southerners, and wagon horses.
Umbilical cord A tube-like structure connecting the mare's body with the growing fetus.
Vices Objectionable traits found in a horse but not serious enough to be classified as unsoundnesses. The common ones are weaving, biting, wind-sucking, cribbing kicking, blanket tearing, halter pulling and crowding.
Weanling A weaned foal before he becomes a yearling.
Western saddle A common type of saddle. The parts of this saddle are horn, fork, seat, cantle, saddle:skirt, back housing or back jockey, lace strings, Dee ring, leather flank girth, fender or sudadero, stirrup, stirrup leather, front tie strap or cinch strap, front jockey and seat jockey (one piece), wool lining, rope strap and pommel.
Wind The breathing ability of a horse.
Withers Area of a horse at the base of the neck, above the shoulders, where the neck joins the body.
Yearling A foal born in the spring becomes on the following January 1 a yearling.

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OTHER TRAINERS AROUND THE USA WE HIGHLY RECOMMEND

MARK LYON is a horse trainer in the Omaha, Elkhorn, NE and Council Bluffs, IA area. Mark specializes in common sense Natural Horsemanship using California Hackamore Reinsman methods. Vaquero Buckaroo traditions help you and your horse communicate together. Get back to pure horsemanship with simplicity and without gadgets.

Mark was selected to compete in the 2008 Extreme Mustang Makeover. He was one of 200 trainers in the nation to receive a untouched mustang, work with it for 100 days and transport it to FT Worth TX and show it to see which trainer could do the best job transforming their wild horse into a partner you would love to own. Mark and his mustang Christian won the championship round despite the saddle slipping off.
Click here to watch their run Mark and Christian just competed in the freestyle competition at the Sun Circuit in Scottsdale AZ. They finished second. The winner was a wonderful dressage horse which bested them by half a point, more details to follow on the training page.

Mark and Christian are now headed to the 2009 Road to the Horse to compete against Tommy Garland in a head to head horsemanship Competition.


Horse training services include
colt starting, problem solving, private riding lessons and clinics Contact Mark   www.marklyonhorsetraining.com/

JAMES MORGAN is a horse trainer, located in Bennett, Colorado.  As a lifetime student of natural horsemanship, James regards every experience as an opportunity to learn and positively impact a horse's life. 

James specializes in colt starting, roping horses, recreational horses, and performance horses.  Other services include trailer loading, problem solving, western riding and roping lessons. www.jamesmorganhorsemanship.com/


Ranch in Era (north of Denton). We are now taking in selected horses for training. we have backgrounds in both english and western. mainly ranch work(actual working ranches), with a concentration on all lateral movements, roping, gathering, safety indoors and out. Have lived and worked for Ray Hunt for a year and your horse will get time with Ray. an unbelievable deal to those who know who he is. if you dont he is the godfather of what people call natural horsemanship, and was doing clinics before clinicing was even called that. i just call it common sense. we will take colt starting, problem horses, behavior issues, or if you just want some more time on your horse. we have cattle, trails, mechanical cow, indoor arena, box stalls, runs, and pasture. $500/month (+125 for feed). you wont find a better deal for price and quality. please email if interested. diamondmranch2008@yahoo.com


EMILY KEMP Colt starting is all about presenting new experiences to the young horse in a way that will allow him to turn loose-  accept and relax. New experiences will include: humans, the saddle, the rider, the bridle, a trailer, clippers, wash bays, dogs, vehicles, and anything else a horse might encounter in a human environment.

Ten years ago I embarked on a lifelong horsemanship journey. I have traveled the country to study with some of the best horsemen in the world in a variety of philosophies and disciplines. I invite you to read about my journey and training.

I currently live in Jackson, Wisconsin, where I train horses and help owners to achieve higher levels of understanding and skill with horses through natural methods. I provide customized training programs to match each horse and lessons to match each rider.

The use of force, fear, or intimidation has no place in this process.  Each day of training prepares the colt for the next day in building a partnership and foundation for the future. www.kemphorsetraining.com


TOM DAVIS - Do you need horse training and Colt Training Solutions. Visit a Tom Davis Horsemanship Clinic - check out www.ColtTrainer.com for the latest Schedule and DVDs Tom Davis is The Horses Solution. Tom Davis with his wife Traci Davis own and opperate TnT Ranch in Orka Texas where they raise Dynamite Equine and Bovine. AQHA Horse and Corriente Roping cattle. Standing at stud at TnT Ranch is Little Playboy RB an own son of Freckles Playboy. At TnT Ranch we offer weekend horsemanship lessons that include lodging and meals and even spa treatments to help you relax after riding all day. We also sell Saddle barn Tack and western Home decor and many other great items. Come check us out any time www.Cowboy4Sale.com Horse Training/ Colt Starting~ Tom Davis Horsemanship


FERDINAND SANTANA is gifted with an uncanny ability to accurately read horses and a profound wisdom that allows him to adjust training methods to the individual horse. Using mild mannered, soft spoken techniques, he has been training all breeds of horses for more years then he can remember. And he enjoys them all! Out in the the middle of nowhere in southern Colorado Ferdinand developed his horse business that involved a clientele of people from the nearby states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Wyoming, Montana, Oklahoma and as far as Illinois, Tennessee and California. He has cowboyed on some prominent ranches in the Southwest.

"Everyone can benefit and every horse can benefit from my training, no matter what the discipline. Thru my training methods your horse will do everything better, because he will feel more secure and confident with the world that he lives in, and thru instinctive behavior and learned behavior he will learn to be your willing partner and team player."  www.ferdinandsantana.com


ED DABNEY - The mission of Gentle Horsemanship is to assist horses and their owners in having a more safe and pleasant life together by establishing a relationship of mutual respect and trust through the use of gentle communication. www.eddabney.com


TRAVIS BRUCE - Balanced progression and development in horse and rider through exercises that stress: Willingness, Confidence, and Respect. www.travisbruce.com


JERRY TINDELL -Teacher and Trainer of Horses, Mules, & HumansTindell's Horse & Mule School will help you build a safer, more confident and more effective relationaship with your horse or mule. Learn to communicate more effectively with your horse or mule. There are a number of people out there offering the same words....the difference is that Jerry doesn't get so impressed with himself that he forgets he is supposed to be teaching."
www.jerrytindell.com

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